We know that we all have our individual blood groups. A family does not have same blood group but some members of family may have the same type of blood group. Blood group helps in establishing what kind of blood we have and if needed, which blood group type person can donate blood.
WHAT IS A BLOOD GROUP?
Let us see what a blood group is in medical terms. As per Wikipedia, “Blood group is classification of based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system.”
There are about 30 known human blood group systems recognised my medical fraternity.
Blood group of a person will not change in his entire lifetime exception to the fact that he may receive blood from another blood group type and his blood group may change on the account of that.
The AB and RH systems are important for blood transfusions.
Blood type is also made up in your body by combination of 2 genes from your parents-One gene from each.
TYPE OF BLOOD GROUP
A blood group has 4 types. They are Group A, Group B, Group AB and Group O. They are further categorised by positive (+) and Negative (-) as per their characteristics like:
- A+ (A Positive)
- A-(A Negative)
- B+ (B Positive)
- B- (B Negative)
- AB+ (AB Positive)
- AB- (AB Negative)
- O- (O negative)
- O+ (O Positive)
Blood Group A
If a person belongs to the blood group A, he has A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in his blood plasma. A group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
Blood Group B
If a person belongs to the blood group B, he has B antigens on the surface of his red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma. A group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
Blood Group AB
If a person belong to the blood group AB, he has both A and B antigens on the surface of his red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in his blood plasma
An individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but cannot donate blood to either A or B group. They are known as universal recipients.
Blood group 0
If a person belong to the blood group 0, he has neither A or B antigens on the surface of his red blood cells but he has both A and B antibodies in his blood plasma.
A group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B, O or AB). That is why they are called UNIVERSAL DONORS
HOW TO FIND OUT THE BLOOD GROUP OF THE PERSON.
There is a scientific process of knowing the blood group of the person. If the blood group of a person is mistakenly diagnosed, and he is given the wrong blood donation, his life may be at stake or in danger.
^ If you mix the blood with three different reagents including any of the three different antibodies, A, B or Rh antibodies you will get to know the blood group of the person.
^ Then you take a look at what has happened. In which mixtures has agglutination occurred? The agglutination indicates that the blood has reacted with a certain antibody and therefore is not compatible with blood containing that kind of antibody. If the blood does not agglutinate, it indicates that the blood does not have the antigens binding the special antibody in the reagent.
^ If you know which antigens are in the person’s blood then it is comfortable to figure out which blood group he or she is of.
BLOOD GROUP IMPORTANCE
We now know why It is important to know our blood group so that we can know whose blood to take for donation in times of emergencies or other medical tests.
The Body immune system produces proteins called as antibodies that act as protectors if other cells enter the body. Depending on which blood type the person has, your immune system will produce antibodies to react against other blood types.